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Weeds Gallery

 

Weeds in Tasmania

African boxthorn
(Lycium ferocissimum)
Description: A very thorny, much-branched shrub to 5m. Flowers are small and white with a purplish throat. Leaves are small and fleshy; fruit ripens to bright orange-red.
Dispersal: Seed spread by birds and animals; can also sprout from root fragments.
Impact: A declared weed. Plants replace native plants in a variety of habitats, becoming a haven for feral animals and a hazard for people. Rigid spines can cause severe injury, as well as damaging tyres etc.
Control: See the DPIW control guide
Agapanthus
(Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis)
Description: A hardy summer-flowering lily with thick, strap-like leaves and blue or white flowers in clusters on long (1.2m), upright stems.
Dispersal: Seed spread by gravity and water, possibly ants; can also spread by tuber fragments and garden waste dumping.
Impact: Spreads into native bushland where it competes with native species. Also chokes gutters. All parts of the plant are poisonous.
Control: Remove flower heads before seed-set. Either dig out plants, taking care to remove all of the tuberous root system, or apply herbicide to the exposed tubers using the cut-and-paint method.
Arum Lily
(Zantedeschia aethiopica scandens)
Description: A large lily with thick, arrow-head shaped leaves. The distinctive large, white funnel-shaped flower is in fact a false flower that contains tiny actual flowers on a central yellow structure.
Dispersal: Primarily by rhizome, especially on riverbanks prone to flooding. Also by seed in water, soil, dumped garden waste, machinery.
Impact: Capable of dominating wet areas, and therefore a significant threat to freshwater habitats. Poisonous.
Control: Remove flower heads before seed-set. Either dig out plants, taking care to remove all of the tuberous root system, or apply herbicide to the tubers using the cut-and-paint method.
Asparagus Fern
(Asparagus scandens)
Description: A dense, spreading creeper with thin stems and fine leaves, which appear in threes at intervals along the stem. Small, pinkish-white flowers with six petals occur in late winter/early spring, leading to orange-red berries.
Dispersal: Seed spread by birds and in soil and garden waste; can also spread by tuber.
Impact: A declared weed – all plants must be eradicated in Tasmania. Vigorously smothers other vegetation.
Control: Seek advice from DPIPWE's Weed Management Section.
Banana Passionfruit
(Passiflora cinnabarina and Passiflora tarminiana)
Description: A large, twining climber to 20m. Large leaves have three lobes and toothed edges. Flowers are large, pink with long, fleshy stalks. Fleshy, oblong fruits ripen to yellow.
Dispersal: Seed spread by birds and animals.
Impact: Smothers or collapses other vegetation, as well as damaging fences and other infrastructure.
Control: Remove all fruit, and either dig out or cut and paint stems, ensuring all stems are treated.
Safe Alternative: True passionfruit (Passiflora edulis). Although not native, the true passionfruit isn't a weed.
Blackberry
(Rubus fruticosus)
Description: A scrambling plant with thorny canes and dark green leaves of varying degrees of dissection. White flowers with five petals are produced in summer; these produce berries that ripen to dark purple in autumn.
Dispersal: Seed dispersed by birds and animals; may re-grow from root fragments, suckers and where canes touch the ground.
Impact: Can form impenetrable thickets, replacing all native vegetation, creating a fire and health hazard and a home for feral bird and animals species.
Control: See the DPIW control guide
Blue Butterfly-bush
(Psoralea pinnata)
Description: Erect shrub or small tree with fine, needle-like leaflets in groups of three. Flowers lilac/blue pea flowers, followed by small, elliptical pods each containing one dark brown seed.
Dispersal: Seed, by birds, ants, water and in soil and dumped garden waste.
Impact: Seeds prolifically and rapidly replaces native trees and shrubs, especially following fire.
Control: Hand pull seedlings; cut and paint larger plants.
Blue Periwinkle
(Vinca major)
Description: Ground cover with dark green or variegated shiny oval leaves. Large (6cm across) mauve flowers with five petals.
Dispersal: Stem and root fragments, in water, soil and on machinery.
Impact: Vigorously smothers other vegetation; toxic to livestock.
Control: Heavy mulching may suppress some growth and weaken plants to allow digging out. ALL plant fragments must be removed. Repeated spraying with herbicide after slashing back can be effective.
Safe Alternative: Native clematis (Clematis arista).
Bluebell Creeper
(Billardiera heterophylla)
Description: A Western Australian native climber, with twisting branches and narrow, shiny green leaves. Small clusters of blue or white bell-like flowers.
Dispersal: Birds, stem and root fragments.
Impact: Vigorously smothers other vegetation; toxic.
Control: Hand pull seedlings, taking care to remove as much of the root system as possible; cut and paint larger plants, disposing of material to ensure seeds and plant parts aren’t dispersed.
Safe Alternative: Native blueberry (Billardiera longiflora) has spectacular purple fruits, but are not as large or self-supporting. A hardy plant that tolerates a variety of conditions.
Boneseed
(Chrysanthemoides monilifera)
Description: A shrub with slightly fleshy, oval-shaped leaves, often covered in a fine white down when juvenile. Yellow daisy flowers produce small fruit that ripen to black.
Dispersal: Seed spread by birds, animals and water. Germinates prolifically after disturbance.
Impact: A declared weed and a Weed of National Significance – removal may be required by law, depending on the location. Replaces native vegetation, particularly in coastal areas, where it may also promote erosion.
Control: See the DPIW control guide
Bridal Creeper
(Asparagus asparagoides)
Description: Creeper with bright green shiny leaves with parallel veins; stems thin and zig-zagging. Tiny greenish white flowers produce small berries that ripen to dark red in late Spring.
Dispersal: Birds disperse seeds; tubers easily spread in garden waste.
Impact: Vigorously smothers other vegetation; can interfere with horticulture. A Weed of National Significance – all plants must be eradicated in Tasmania.
Control: Seek advice from DPIPWE's Weed Management Section.
Safe Alternative: Native clematis (Clematis arista).
Burgan
(Kunzea ericoides)
Description: A tall shrub to 5 metres, with narrow leaves. Young stems are hairy. Flowers small, white, on single stem in summer; crowded but not clustered. Stamens protrude beyond petals.
Dispersal: Seeds are spread by birds and ants, as well as in soil.
Impact: Invades native coastal areas, grasslands and woodlands, where it replaces native habitat and food species.
Control: Seedlings can be hand-pulled. Larger plants can be treated with the cut-and-paint method.
Canary Broom
(Genista monspessulana)
Description: dense, upright shrubs to 3m with oval leaflets in 3s. Bright yellow pea flowers in late winter – spring. Seed pods flat and slightly hairy.
Dispersal: Seed spread by birds, water, ants and in soil and garden waste; germinates prolifically, especially after disturbance.
Impact: A declared weed – removal may be required by law, depending on the location. Vigorously competes with native vegetation, replacing habitat for native birds and animals. A fire hazard.
Control: See the DPIPWE website
Cape Ivy
(Delairea odorata)
Description: A dense ground cover and climber to 10m. Bright green leaves shiny and ivy-shaped; fragrant yellow daisy flowers in prolific clusters.
Dispersal: Wind-dispersal of seeds; layering of stems.
Impact: Vigorously smothers other vegetation; collapses desirable shrubs and fences; toxic.
Control: Cut climbing stems and leave aerial plant parts to dry out; dig out all roots and layered stems. Regrowth may be sprayed.
Safe Alternative: Native clematis (Clematis arista).
Cape Leeuwin Wattle
(Paraserianthes lophantha)
Description: Spreading tall shrub or small tree with dark green, feathery leaves, and greenish-yellow bottlebrush-shaped flowers. Long, flat green seedpods turn dark brown in summer. Seeds round, black, hard.
Dispersal: Long lived seeds by water, ants, soil and dumped garden waste.
Impact: Replaces native vegetation, especially on lighter soils.
Control: Hand pull (quite large plants can have shallow root systems); cut and paint.
Safe Alternative: There are a number of Tasmanian native Acacia species with similar characteristics. Choose one local to your area.
Capeweed
(Arctotheca calendula)
Description: A daisy that produces a flat rosette (although may be more upright where moisture is available) with deeply dissected grey-green hairy leaves. Flowers are pale yellow with a dark centre.
Dispersal: Seed spread by wind, and in contaminated soil, garden waste.
Impact: Capable of dominating disturbed areas, lawns and pasture.
Control: See DPIW control guide
Climbing Groundsel
(Senecio angulatus)
Description: A climber or large, spreading shrub; often confused with Cape Ivy but has thicker, diamond-shaped leaves, purplish trailing stems and its yellow, daisy flowers are not in clusters.
Dispersal: Easily spread by stem fragments; seed spread by wind, water and in soil.
Impact: Once widely promoted as a fire-retardant plant, this species has started to form dense masses to the exclusion of all other plants, especially in coastal areas. A haven for feral animals.
Control: Plants can be pruned back and then either dug out or the stump treated with the cut-and-paint method. Care must be taken to remove and dispose of all trailing stems and root fragments.
Cootamundra Wattle
(Acacia baileyana)
Description: A small tree to 10m with drooping branches and silver-grey fern-like leaves. Bark is smooth and brown; stems are silvery. Flowers are bright yellow fluffy balls, in late winter and early spring. Long-lived seeds are produced in flattened pods.
Dispersal: Seeds are spread by birds and ants, as well as in soil.
Impact: Invades native coastal areas, grasslands and woodlands, where it replaces native species.
Control: Seedlings can be hand-pulled. Larger plants can be cut off at the base.
Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster species)
Description: Large shrub to 5m with oval leaves, lighter underneath. Large clusters of strongly scented small white/cream flowers produce clusters of bright red fruits.
Dispersal: Seeds, by birds and animals.
Impact: Competes with native species in a variety of native bush communities; fruit are poisonous in large amounts.
Control: Hand pull small seedlings; cut and paint larger shrubs.
Safe Alternative: Native currant (Coprosma quadfrifida)
Crack Willows
Description: Deciduous tree to 25 m high with 1 to several trunks. Bark greyish-brown and fissured with age. Branches spreading to form a wide variable crown.
Dispersal: Spread by rooting of detached twigs or branches
Impact: The extensive root systems and rapid spread of this tree causes blocking of waterways and the diversion of water to other pathways. This can cause both erosion and flooding of nearby areas. Control: See the National Willows Management Guide
Cumbungi
(Typha latifolia)
Note: The picture contains 3 species, Cumbungi is on the right the other two are natives.
Description: A tall, upright reed to 3mn with flat, strap-like leaves. Velvety dark brown-black cylindrical flower heads are produced on round stems over late spring-summer. Easily confused with two native Typha species – seek advice.
Dispersal: By masses of tiny seed in water and on wind; also by rhizomes.
Impact: Can completely dominate ponds, dams and slow-moving waterways, interrupting flow and trapping sediment.
Control: See the DPIW control guide
Elisha's Tears
(Leycesteria formosa)
Description: Hollow-stemmed deciduous cane-like shrub to 4m, arising from a root crown just below the soil surface. Flowers are pendulous clusters of cream-purple, funnel-shaped flowers surrounded by maroon floral leaves. Dark purple fruits the size of broad beans.
Dispersal: Seeds spread by birds, animals, and water, and in dumped soil. Also root fragments.
Impact: Can dominate streambanks and wet forests, requiring little disturbance to become established. Displaces native plants and animals.
Control: Small plants may be dug out. Large plants best treated by drilling and filling the root crown.
Safe Alternative: Waratah (Telopea truncata), native pepper (Tasmannia lanceolata), lancewood (Phebalium squameum).
English Broom
(Cytisus scoparius)
Description: deciduous, erect shrub with twiggy, 5-angled stems & small dark green leaves, though leafless through most of the year. Masses of bright yellow pea flowers in spring; some forms have yellow/maroon flowers.
Dispersal: Seed spread by birds, water, ants and in soil and garden waste; germinates prolifically, especially after disturbance.
Impact: A declared weed – removal may be required by law, depending on the location. Vigorously competes with native vegetation, replacing habitat for native birds and animals. A fire hazard.
Control: See the DPIW control guide
English Ivy
(Hedera helix)
Description: Dense woody climber with glossy dark green leaves (occasionally variegated) that vary in shape from typical lobed ivy-shape to egg-shape. Small flowers produce dark berries in clusters.
Dispersal: Seeds spread by birds; root fragments, typically in garden waste.
Impact: Vigorously smothers other vegetation; collapses desirable shrubs and fences; all plant parts are poisonous and sap can cause skin irritation.
Control: Hand pull or dig out small plants, removing all roots and layering stems; cut and paint larger plants, treating all rooting stems.
Safe Alternative: Native clematis (Clematis arista).
Euryops Daisy
(Euryops abrotanifolius)
Description: An erect perennial daisy with multiple stems to 2 metres, fine leaves and single bright yellow daisy flowers on slender stems.
Dispersal: Seeds are spread by the wind, and in soil. Thrives after disturbance, including fire.
Impact: Invades native coastal areas, grasslands and woodlands, where it replaces native species. Also infests pastures and roadsides.
Control: Can be hand-pulled, but this often stimulates seed germination so follow-up is essential. May be spot-sprayed.
Fennel
(Foeniculum vulgare)
Description: A fast-growing perennial herb with feathery, highly-divided leaves, strongly aniseed scented. Flowers are tiny, yellow and arranged in dense clusters at the end of stems.
Dispersal: seeds spread on animals, in water, soil, on vehicles and in garden waste.
Impact: can invade native grasslands and open woodlands following disturbance; can obscure sight lines on roadsides.
Control: small plants can be dug out, ensuring all of the tap-root is removed. Larger plants may be foliar sprayed but follow-up is usually required. Car must be taken not to disperse seeds if removing mature plants.
Foxglove
(Digitalis purpurea)
Description: A biennial herb with a rosette of soft, blue-grey hairy leaves that produces a tall flower spike of white, pink or purple tubular flowers with dark mottling.
Dispersal: Tiny seeds in wind, water, and soil.
Impact: Invades wet forests, riparian and alpine areas, where it replaces native herbs. Extremely toxic to livestock and humans.
Control: Dig out or hand pull flowering plants, ensuring there is no contact with sap. Rosettes can be spot-sprayed or wiped with herbicide.
Fuchsia
(Fuchsia magellanica)
Description: Dense, sprawling multi-stemmed shrub with pinkish stems and narrow, slightly toothed leaves. Flowers are deep red or pink, drooping and lantern-shaped, producing a pale or translucent drupe (fruit) in summer/autumn.
Dispersal: Seeds from birds and in water; broken stems.
Impact: Of the many hundreds of fuchsia hybrids and cultivars, only this species has become weedy. It can completely dominate riverbanks, excluding all other plants and promoting erosion.
Control: Small plants can be dug out; larger plants require cut and paint.
Safe Alternative: All other species of fuchsia are safe to plant.
Gazania
(Gazania linearis)
Description: Low growing herb with long, narrow leaves that are dark green above and whitish below. The large, bright daisy flower (yellow, orange, red) has black near the centre.
Dispersal: Seed by wind, water or soil movement.
Impact: Can dominate light, sandy soils, including beach sands, where it replaces native plants and alters dune formation.
Control: Hand pull individual plants.
Golden Wattle
(Acacia pycnantha)
Description: A small tree to 8m with brown/grey bark. The mature “leaves” are narrow and sickle shaped; the leaves of seedlings are very large and rounded. Flowers are globular, fluffy, bright gold and in groups of 4 to 23, appearing during late winter and spring. Seeds are produced in flattened pods.
Dispersal: Seeds are spread by birds and ants, as well as in soil.
Impact: Invades native grasslands and woodlands, where it replaces native species.
Control: Seedlings can be hand-pulled. Larger plants can be cut off at the base.
Gorse
(Ulex europaeus)
Description: dense, spiny shrub; stems and spines grooved and slightly hairy; flowers golden, fragrant pea-shaped in bunches July–Oct. Can be confused with native Daviesia ulicifolia, but this plant is hairless and the flowers are gold and maroon.
Dispersal: exploding pods, ants, vehicles, gravel, animals, footwear, water, dumped garden waste and soil
Impact: A declared weed – removal may be required by law, depending on the location. Vigorously competes with native vegetation, replacing habitat for native birds and animals. A fire hazard.
Control: See the DPIW control guide
Hawthorn
(Crataegus monogyna)
Description: deciduous, woody, thorny shrub to 10m, with small, lobed leaves; dense clusters of fragrant white/pink flowers in Oct–Dec produce red berries with yellow flesh and 1 hard seed in summer
Dispersal: Seed spread by birds, animals and in soil and garden waste; can also spread by suckering.
Impact: Can form dense thickets, especially in cooler areas, where it becomes a haven for feral animals and birds, as well as being a health hazard.
Control: Small plants may be dug out; larger plants can be mechanically removed or treated using the cut-and-paint method. Foliar spraying usually requires follow up.
Holly
(Ilex aquifolium)
Description: Much-branched shrub or small tree; leaves glossy and deep green, often with wavy edges and sharp spines. Flowers, small, pinkish-white in clusters of three. Bright red berries in Autumn.
Dispersal: Male and female trees required. Seed is dispersed by birds and animals; may also sucker.
Impact: Invades cool, damp forest, replacing native plants and shrubs.
Control: Dig out small plants; cut and paint larger ones. Be prepared to re-treat.
Japanese Honeysuckle
(Lonicera japonica)
Description: A twining, woody creeper with opposite oval-shaped leaves. Flowers occur in pairs and are fine and tubular. They turn from white to yellow as they mature, with some maroon on the outside. The fragrance is sweet and strong.
Dispersal: Mainly by stems; seed spread by birds and in water.
Impact: Can dominate damp forests and gullies, where it swamps other plants.
Control: Cut back and dig out, carefully disposing of all roots and stems. Alternatively, cut back and treat stump with cut-and-paint method.
Marram Grass
Marram Grass
Milkwort
(Polygala myrtifolia)
Description: erect or spreading shrub with oval leaves to 3m; new stems purplish & slightly hairy. Clusters of purple ‘pea-flowers’ are produced year-round, mostly Aug–Dec. These produce a flattened pod with 2 seeds.
Dispersal: ants, water, birds, contaminated soil.
Impact: Capable of replacing native vegetation, especially in coastal areas and on sandy soils.
Control: Hand-pull small plants. Dig out or cut-off larger plants. Dispose of material carefully.
Mirror Bush
(Coprosma repens)
Description: Shrub to 8m with roundish, very glossy green leaves. Flowers are inconspicuous: female white, tubular in groups of three; male in greenish clusters. Fleshy orange-red berries ripen in summer.
Dispersal: Seeds, by birds and animals.
Impact: Replaces native vegetation, especially in coastal areas.
Control: Hand pull small plants; cut and paint larger ones.
Safe Alternative: Native currant (Coprosma quadfrifida). In exposed situations, boobyalla (Acacia sophorae) is a tough, attractive alternative.
Montbretia
(Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora)
Description: A lily with flat, soft leaves less than 1m long. The orange trumpet-shaped flowers are arranged along the end of the stem.
Dispersal: By rhizomes and corms in water, garden waste & contaminated soil, and especially on tools and machinery.
Impact: Forms dense stands to the exclusion of other vegetation. Exceptionally competitive in home gardens and difficult to control.
Control: May be foliar sprayed but repeated applications and a wetting agent are usually necessary. Digging out is possible but must be repeated as small corms are invariably left behind in the soil.
New Zealand Flax
(Phormium tenax)
Description: A large (2m x 2m) clumping plant with long, green, bronze or maroon strap-like leaves. Orange-red sprays of flowers are produced on long upright flower stems.
Dispersal: Seed spread by wind, water and in dumped garden waste and soil; can also spread by rhizome.
Impact: Can replace native vegetation, particularly in damp areas and along riverbanks.
Control: Plants can be dug out, ensuring as much of the root system is removed as possible.
Ox-eye Daisy
(Leucanthemum vulgare)
Description: A perennial daisy growing to 1m. The basal leaves are spoon-shaped and lobed with rounded teeth. Stem leaves are narrow and strongly toothed. Flowers are up to 5cm across, white with a yellow centre.
Dispersal: Seeds by wind and in soil; root fragments from disturbance.
Impact: Can invade native grasslands, replacing native plant species.
Control: hand-pull, dig out or spot spray and mulch heavily. Repeated treatment is required.
Pampas Grass
(Cortaderia species)
Description: A tall grass with rasping, sharp-edged leaves, which form a curled mass in the base of the plant when they die and dry out. Large, silky-feathery flower heads are white, pink or yellow depending on the species.
Dispersal: Seed is spread by the wind, in water, soil, gravel, and on machinery; it can also spread by rhizomes and the dumping of plant crowns.
Impact: A declared weed – all plants must be eradicated in Tasmania. Vigorously competes with other vegetation; also creates a health and fire hazard.
Control: Seek advice from DPIW's Weed Management Section.
Radiata Pine
(Pinus radiata)
Description: conical pine-tree with branches arranged in whorls, to 50m; pine cones are large and green, turning brown on maturity and releasing flat seed with two papery wings.
Dispersal: wind, water and birds.
Impact: Can invade bushland where it displaces native plants and replaces habitat for native birds and animals.
Control: hand-pull seedlings; cut and paint smaller trees; cut & paint, drill & fill or frill larger trees
Ragwort (yellow/purple)
Red Valerian
(Centranthus ruber)
Description: An upright or slightly sprawling herb to 80cm with narrow to broadly ovate, blue-green leaves; uppermost leaves may be toothed. Flowers are tiny red or white flowers in conical spikes.
Dispersal: Seed spread by wind, in dumped garden waste and in contaminated soil; can re-sprout from root fragments.
Impact: Can form dense stands to the exclusion of native plants.
Control: May be hand-pulled, but care should be taken to remove as much of the root system as possible. Successful spot-spraying requires repeated effort and the use of a surfactant.
Serrated Tussock
Serrated Tussock
Spanish Heath
(Erica lusitanica)
Description: woody shrub with small, pine-needle like leaves; abundant small, tubular white–pink flowers in 2s or 3s between June and September. Each flower can produce 80-100 dust-like seeds.
Dispersal: Seed spread by water, wind, and in soil and garden waste. Can re-sprout from root fragments.
Impact: A declared weed – removal may be required by law, depending on the location. Vigorously competes with native vegetation, replacing habitat for native birds and animals. A fire hazard.
Control: Seek advice from DPIW's Weed Management Section.
Sweet Briar
(Rosa rubiginosa)
Description: erect or scrambling deciduous shrub with thorny stems, prickly leaves and fragrant flowers & leaves, to 3m; flowers large, pink with 5 petals and bristly stalks, producing rosehips (fruit) which are egg-shaped and ripen to deep orange-red in autumn.
Dispersal: Seed spread by birds, animals and in soil and garden waste; can grow from crown and root fragments.
Impact: Can form dense, impenetrable thickets, replacing native vegetation and becoming a health hazard due to the thorns; a haven for feral animals.
Control: See DPIW control guide
Sweet Pittosporum
(Pittosporum undulatum)
Description: A shrub or small tree with shiny, oval leaves with wavy edges, lighter underneath. Flowers creamy-white and sweetly scented, followed by clusters of orange fleshy fruit.
Dispersal: Seed by birds, animals, water; root-fragments in water, soil and dumped garden waste.
Impact: Replaces native vegetation in a wide range of bush types, including wet forest and coastal areas.
Control: Hand pull small plants, ensuring all roots are removed; cut and paint.
Safe Alternative: Cheesewood (Pittosporum bicolor) a Tasmanian native pittosporum; native laurel (Anopterus glandulosus) has similar foliage; Christmas bush (Prostanthera lasianthos) has a similar shape and masses of flowers in early summer.
Sycamore
(Acer pseudoplatanus)
Description: A deciduous tree with smooth, grey bark turning reddish, and maple leaves. Flowers small and greenish, followed by wing shaped seeds.
Dispersal: Seeds dispersed by wind with a distinctive propeller motion; also in water, soil. Sprouts from dumped prunings.
Impact: Invades wet and damp forests and riverbanks, where it replaces native trees and shrubs, destroying food and habitat sources for native birds and animals.
Control: Hand pull small seedlings; cut and paint or drill and fill larger plants.
Three-cornered Garlic
(Alium triquetrum)
Description: A perennial, clump-forming bulb with sharply triangular, fleshy leaves to 50 cm. White bell-shaped flowers have green mid-veins. Plant smells very strongly of garlic.
Dispersal: Seed can be spread by water, but most dispersal is by the movement of bulbs in soil, and the dumping of garden waste.
Impact: Can dominate grassy areas; taints milk and meat products if eaten by livestock.
Control: Carefully dig out small infestations. Do not compost, as bulbs will not break down. Larger areas may be spot-sprayed.
Tree Lucerne
(Chamaecytisus palmensis)
Description: Dense, weeping shrub to 6m; leaflets hairy, and in threes; masses of fragrant, creamy-white pea-shaped flowers, followed by downy green seedpods that turn brown.
Dispersal: Pods eject seeds; seed also transported by animals, ants and soil movement.
Impact: Replaces native vegetation; long-lived seeds.
Control: Hand pull seedlings, cut-and paint larger plants.
Safe Alternative: Prickly box (Bursaria spinosa) and hop bush (Dodonaea viscosa) in dry areas; local Tasmanian native acacias for high rainfall areas.
Tree Lupin
(Lupinus arboreus)
Description: woody shrub to 2.5m; leaflets resembling the spread of a hand. Many fragrant yellow pea-flowers are produced in spring. These produce hairy pods which each contain 10 poisonous, hard, black seeds.
Dispersal: seed spread by water, ants, planting, dumped garden waste and soil; germinates prolifically after fire.
Impact: Can vigorously compete with native plants, especially in coastal and sandy situations. A fire hazard.
Control: Small plants can be hand-pulled. Larger plants can be treated using the cut-and-paint method. Care should be taken to avoid disturbance in dune areas.
Wandering Creeper
(Tradescantia fluminensis)
Description: Creeper with trailing, brittle and slightly succulent stems to 4m; clusters of small white flowers, each with three petals, at the end of stems.
Dispersal: Roots from the nodes; grows from stem pieces.
Impact: Completely smothers ground layer, replacing other plants.
Control: Carefully dig out whole plant ensuring all of the plant is removed and disposed of.
Watsonia
(Watsonia meriana)
Description: A vigorous perennial member of the iris family, to 2m, with sword-like, rigid leaves; re-grows from corms each year and forms dense ground-layers. Flowers are tubular, orange-pink, pink, white or pink-red, 10–15 in a spike from about December to April.
Dispersal: mainly stem bulbils & corms spread by water, slashing, ants, and in mud, garden waste and soil.
Impact: Can invade coastal areas and sandy heathlands, displacing native species; a fire hazard.
Control: dig out in moist soil to ensure all corms are removed; bag all material and dispose of appropriately. Foliar spraying may be possible but thorough wetting and the use of a surfactant/penetrant are necessary.